How to varnish a boat step by step
Varnishing a boat or any other object may seem a lot of work. However, every boat owner can achieve a perfect long lasting finish when they make use of a good preparation, a good schedule and with the right Epifanes varnish. There is also a video available with all the information.
Step 1: Schedule and goals when varnishing a boat
Determine what you want to achieve. Varnishing a boat from bare wood takes more time than applying maintenance coats only. Also, what kind of finish do you want to achieve? Are you able to work in a well-conditioned closed environment or are you working outside? Drying times during the winter are much longer than under warmer conditions. Plan your varnish job well in advance and work step-by-step. This provides you with a clear view and will avoid undesired surprises.
Step 2: Condition of the varnish
A well applied Epifanes system from scratch can last for years or even more than a decade. It is important that you apply sufficient coats when building up the system and apply maintenance coats regularly. When the wood is previously varnished, you can judge the quality of the varnish by one of the following three points.
1. The varnish system shows loss of gloss. In this situation you can clean and sand the surface and apply at least two or more new coats.
2. The varnish system looks poor, it shows loss of gloss and light crazing. In this situation the UV protection is completely gone. Now it is important to clean and sand the varnish thorough and apply at least four or more new coats.
3. The varnish system is in a bad condition. In the last situation the old system should be removed and replaced by a new system from scratch.
Step 3: The difference between a one- and a two part varnish
A one-part varnish dries through drying additives when it comes in contact with air. A two-part varnish is a chemically drying paint. This latter varnish is tougher and stronger than a single pack, but the application is more challenging. It shouldn’t be applied outside, at temperatures below 12°C and when the air humidity is above 70%.
After sanding and degreasing, a single part varnish can be applied over a two-part poly-urethane based varnish. However, a two-part poly-urethane varnish cannot be applied on top of a one-part system. You can always test whether you have a one- or a two-part varnish with some acetone. Take a piece of cloth with acetone and press it to the boat for around 15 minutes. If the varnish starts to wrinkle and you can peel it of, you are dealing with a single pack system.
A growing varnish method is to build up with a two-component varnish (Epifnanes PP Varnish Extra) and finish with a one-component. This combined varnish system will give you faster film building without losing elasticity and UV protection.
Step 4: Materials needed
Determine the required amount of varnish. Also ensure to have enough and the correct thinners. Do not forget necessary tools for the job, i.e. brushes, rollers, masking tape, abrasive paper, etc. and remember your personal safety (protecting gloves/clothes, mouth cap, safety goggles). Saving money on brushes, thinners and sand paper will reflect in the quality of your work and increase the possibility of failure.
Step 5: Surface preparation
A thorough surface preparation is time consuming. In case of bare wood, degrease with Epifanes Cleaning Solvent. Change your towel regularly and sand the wood with P180. Degrease again with Epifanes Cleaning Solvent
Old layers can be degreased with Epifanes Spraythinner for P&V. This is the spraythinner for single pack paints. DO NOT USE THE EPIFANES PU SPRAYTHINNER. Again, change the towels regularly. Sand the old coats thorough with P220-240.
Step 6: Choose the right varnish and system
Epifanes Clear Varnish
The classic Epifanes Clear Varnish is very easy to use and can be applied on almost every type of wood. You can also apply this product on top of every previous varnished surface no matter what brand. When building up a system from bare wood, it is important to thin the first coat by 50% for a good penetration in to the wood. Thin the second coat by 25%. After two or three coats apply the varnish without any thinner to a minimum of seven coats. The more coats the better the UV protection and longevity. Light sanding or the use of a Scotch Brite is highly advised.
Epifanes Woodfinish Gloss
The Epifanes Woodfinish Gloss is a varnish-like finish similar to the traditional Clear Varnish. The largest difference is the oil component in the Woodfinish Gloss. This makes it especially suited for oily woods like Teak and Oregon Pine. Another benefit is that you do not have to sand between coats if the subsequent coat is applied within 72 hours at 18°C. When applying, thin down the first coat by 25-50% and build up to a minimum of 6 coats. Again, the more coats the better the UV protection and longevity.
Epifanes Rubbed Effect Varnish and Epifanes Woodfinish Matte
Epifanes Rubbed Effect Varnish is a satin varnish for interiors only. On the other hand we have the Epifanes Woodfinish Matte. This is also a satin varnish but does have a UV filter and it is therefore suited for exterior use. Very important is build up the system with a high gloss such as the Epifanes Woodfinish Gloss or Epifanes PP varnish extra before applying one of the satin varnishes. The high gloss builds-up much faster, but also gives a better protection in the underneath layers.
Epifanes Poly-urethane Clear Gloss & Clear Satin
These two varnishes are two-component finishes. They are the toughest varnishes in the Epifanes range. This is the ultimate varnish for tables, dashboards and other solid pieces of wood that need maximum protection. It is possible to polish the high gloss varnish as well. For a satin fishing, build up with multiple coats of Epifanes Poly-urethane Clear Gloss before applying the Poly-urethane Clear Satin on top.
Epifanes PP Varnish extra
This is the fastest build up varnish possible. With The PP varnish extra you can apply up to 3 layers a day at 18 C without intercoat sanding! This product perfectly penetrates the wood and has limited shrinkage. After getting the build-up coats with the PP Varnish extra, the applicator has the option continue with the single pack Epifanes Clear Varnish (one-component) or the Epifanes Poly-Urethane Clear for the maximum UV protection. The PP should always be overcoated with a product with higher UV protection. The Epifanes PP varnish alone is not enough.
Step 7: Apply the full varnish system
After choosing the right product and system for your job, it is essential to apply the minimum required number of coats. In Northern Europe with general lesser UV exposure a system should exist of at least 7 coats, where the first 2 or 3 coats are only impregnating the wood. The real protection comes from the final 4+ coats. It might be needed to apply more than 7 coats if the varnish is applied to a horizontal surfaces or walking area's. In Southern Europe or Southern states of the USA we see a higher UV exposure. We recommend to apply 12 coats. In these warmer climates maintenance intervals will be shortened. Here you will find all Epifanes varnish systems explained in more detail.
Step 8: After the work is done
After application, allow the varnish system sufficient time to harden. Make notes about the used products and quantity for future reference. But most important, do not postpone maintenance, but apply fresh varnish coats once loss of gloss is noticed. This helps a varnish system to withstand the forces of nature.